3/27/2020 0 Comments
Ethics of selling body parts - Research Paper Example There are many avenues both legal and illegal that human body products can be sold through. According to () the amount of money one receives for trading in human body parts is in proportional to the risk involved. This source of income can be tapped again and again. The global trade in organs opens a large market worldwide with both legal and ethical issues. Being a living laboratory compared to no other laboratory known it can produce products such as Kidneys, blood, ovum, sperms, hair, also prostitution is said to be trade in human body parts and others such as surrogacy. These body parts are are sold through illegal and legal avenues. The human baby is made from a biological combination of sperm and ovum, thus there is no product made from scratch by factories. Good percentage of people who want children are unable to get hence they are helped by science but the important ingredients have to be used. Infertility science has improved so much such that it has developed into a multibillion ventures for entrepreneurs in this business. Buying of biological fathers has been made easier with the availability of sperm banks. A client chose a biological father depending on personality, education, ethnicity among many other factors; this is because when woman buys a sperm she is buying that mans medical history and genes. Screening is thorough in the legal markets for sperms. Ovum donation also referred to as egg donation, involves risks of infection and injuries to the donor, though it is a fifteen minute operation. But even with the modern invitro fertilization methods, many implanted embryos fail to hatch in the recipientâ€™s womb. This technology enables women who are barren to get children.egg donors earn monthly for every months work, they can earn between $3000-$8000 dollars a month, but this is not a task for the squeamish. Manâ€™s obsession with beauty has opened a large market for hair business. There are options for auctioning ones hair. Hair trade is a multimillion dollar business and probably hair is the easiest body part to harvest and even to sell, depending on the texture of the hair. Prostitution is the oldest trade in human body parts that is practiced the world over but this is a service product. Other human body parts traded in are, the kidneys and the heart, which are done through kidney and heart transplant respectively, it involves a lot of risks to both the donor and the recipient hence it is very expensive for the recipient. for the heart the donor cannot remain alive hence it has not gained popularity because it is 100% risky and very expensive for one to afford .it is not like kidney transplant where the risk is not much since only one kidney is removed. Others like surrogacy involves provision of raw materials for human life, the only body parts sold here the hormones responsible for baby formation, maintenance and renting of the womb. The surrogate mother undergoes a grueling experience for nine
Housing need and demand Q.2 In assessing current and future housing requirements how would you distinguish between the concepts of housing need and housing demand? Housing need and demand are planning issues for many countries around the world, itâ€™s important that â€œadequate shelter is available and accessible to meet the needs of an ever-increasing population in many urban settlementsâ€ (David, 2002:31). The operation of the UK housing market has seen problems over recent years and is the focus of much discussion (Jones and Watkins, 2009:11). UK policies aim to address three major issues of housing shortages, housing quality and housing affordability. Housing markets can be complex, â€œhousing markets should supply the right kind of units and the right time in the right placesâ€ (Downs, 2004:73). Failure to achieve this raises several implications that have been felt in UK. Even though housing shortage is arguably a symbol of success, growth and competiveness all vital to creating a successful economy (Tallon, 2010:216), it has obvious problems. This essay aims to explore more closely the difference between housing need and demand as well as the factors they depend on for current and future housing requirements. By identifying the issues that housing need and demand depend upon, the essay will explain the effect this has particularly in the UK and some possible trends for the future. Finally the essay will critically explain several approaches to estimating housing requirements that take into account some of the issues raised. Housing need and housing demand can often be confused yet they have different meanings. Every household has a housing need irrespective of income or type of housing. Housing need is described as â€œthe quantity of housing required to accommodation of the agreed minimum standard and above for a population given its size and household composition without taking into account the household `s ability to pay for the housing assigned to itâ€ (Robinson, 1979:56-57). This is not be confused with housing demand which is defined as the relationship between â€œthe price of housing and the quantity and quality of housing for which people are able and willing to payâ€ (Shucksmith, 2002:61). An individual or household has an unmet housing need when they fail to exercise effective demand for decent housing (Oxley, 2009:6). By satisfying housing need it enables the empowerment of people to be able to live in satisfactory housing despite their possible inability to afford it (Tighe and Mueller 2013:87). Most housing problems are essentially â€problems of a lack of effective demand for decent housingâ€ (Oxley, 2000:2), It is therefore vital that the correct housing is built to meet the needs of the population; this will increase the demand for housing and play a significant role in improving the economy. Housing need depends on various factors that will differ from country to country particularly in developing countries (Struyk, 1998:21). Firstly the population in the UK is growing; this creates greater numbers of households requiring more housing. â€œHousehold numbers for England are expected to grow by an average annual rate of 220,000 over the decade to 2021â€ (Wilcox and Perry, 2013:8) shown in Appendix A, as a result more housing must be built in order to accommodate this need. 122,590 new homes were started in 2013 which is a 23% increase from 2012 shown in appendix B (DCLG, 2014:4). Household numbers are rising due to population growth putting pressure on housing, infrastructure, schools and hospitals (Madden et al. 2010:3). Households are also changing, people are living longer meaning housing must cater for elderly people, building more retirement housing could consequently free up family homes for young people thus solving some housing need issues (Best and Porteus, 2012:3). Longer life expectancy means Households are staying together for longer, itâ€™s now suggested that 60% of over 60`s own their home outright (DCLG, 2013:18). Households have different housing needs, not everyone demands a one bedroom house for example the most common household between 2011-12 was couples with no dependent children accounting for 35% of the population (DCLG, 2013:18). Household patterns are constantly changing over time, its vital therefore that the correct housing is supplied to meet current and future needs, the number of one-person households is expected to grow in the UK by 60% by 2025-30 and as a result this must be addressed (OECD, 2011:29). The standard of living is increasing in the UK; this means that people now expect more from their homes. Some countries have now â€œshifted from increasing the number of units to increasing the quality of unitsâ€ (Noguchi and Poterba, 1994:224), certain amenities such as double glazing windows used to be a luxury now it is almost expected in most properties. â€œQuality and affordability are key for housing in a western societyâ€ (Pacione, 2009:215), the minimum standard of housing is rising meaning there is a requirement for â€˜decent, safe and secure housing both with new builds and renovations` (GLA, 2013),â€Poor housing impacts directly on residentsâ€™ health and educational attainmentâ€ emphasising the need for quality housing (Wilson, 2010:76). This not only an issue of new homes but also of existing housing both with social housing and in the private rented sector, many existing social houses were built decades ago and therefore their condition may be lacking in standard. Vale (2013:114) explains another pressure on housing standards, the increasing pressure to build environmentally friendly and efficient housing. One of the main elements to assessing housing needs is to examine existing stock as â€œexisting stock usually accounts for the majority of dwelling stocksâ€ (Xue, 2013:65), of which in wales 83% is in the private sector (welsh Government, 2008:26). Current stock must be reviewed when considering calculating housing requirements for the present and future; this is explained later in the essay. This finally leads onto the type housing needed; â€œthe biggest problem is that as a country we are simply not building enough affordable homesâ€ (Shelter, 2013) and therefore the public needs are not met, the type of houses build should also reflect the populationâ€™s household structure. Housing demand is affected by several separate issues to housing need, understanding these issues is important for current and future demand to be met. Firstly and most importantly the supply of housing is not addressing the UKâ€™s demand, â€œthere are not enough affordable houses in the economyâ€ (HCTC, 2013:75). The Government sets targets for the number of houses which need to be built yet these are rarely met and the demand keeps increasing, â€œalmost half of Londons largest developments are not meeting the affordable housing targets being set by local authoritiesâ€ (BBC, 2013). Despite its importance, â€œhousing is yet to have the same political profile as health and educationâ€ (Wilson, 2010:76). One of the main issues with regards to housing demand not being met is that private developers will not build housing they wonâ€™t be able to sell and therefore another reason for more affordable housing (Empty Homes, 2014). Housing supply must be calculated for development, for example taking deaths and existing stock into consideration. House prices also affect housing demand, there are not enough houses being supplied at the right price to meet the demand therefore the price of housing rises as people who have money will pay to have a nice house resulting in â€œincreasing numbers of people being priced out of the marketâ€ (Stephens, 2011:6). â€œFalling house prices due to the recession have not solved the problem of affordability as they have been accompanied by tighter lending criteriaâ€ (Wilson, 2010) especially with deposits, as a result the help to buy scheme was introduced. Housing demand depends on several other factors such as income and wealth, these terms are very different to an economist; wealth represents the accumulation of economic resources valuable to a household where income is a flow measure of capital over a period of time (Pozdena, 1988:25). Wealth and income can give access to credit loans and mortgages, â€œcredit access and mortgage availability go a long way to promoting higher quality and affordable housingâ€ (Nothaft and Erbas, 2002:12). Due to the credit crisis many peopleâ€™s income and wealth have been affected, this has had an effect on the housing market and peopleâ€™s ability to demand housing. Secondly the availability of credit and obtaining mortgages is something that has resulted in households being unable to afford housing. Lenders look at current income and financial assets because they represent measurable indicators of a borrowerâ€™s means of repaying the loan (Pozdena, 1988:26). The supply of money in the economy will affect mortgage interest rates and availability. â€œPeople are getting second jobs when interest rates rise to cope with higher mortgage repaymentsâ€ (Telegraph, 2013), as a result this has led to many people not being able to afford the housing supplied. There are many factors contributing to housing need and demand however â€œdifferent needs may warrant different solutionsâ€ (Bramley et al, 2010:17), not everyone needs to be provided with social accommodation perhaps the issue can be solved by enhancing or adapting an existing property. As a result there are several different models that can be used to assess housing requirements. The first approach to be discussed is the household and dwelling balance sheet, this is a simple way to reveal housing shortages or surpluses (DoE, 1980:56), it simply compares the number of households to the number of dwellings. This method may show a shortage or surplus however doesnâ€™t take into account many other factors such as home ownership, the location, nature of dwellings or condition of housing. As a result the balance sheet can prove inaccurate and â€œtend to double count or overestimate requirementsâ€ (Monk and Whitehead, 2010:60). The second approach is the net-stock approach which is characterised by Holmans (1995)(Whitehead and kleinman, 1992), it consists of measuring different types of need and forecasting household growth, estimating housing need for the present and future. The model â€œexemplifies the important link between household growth, need and housing investmentâ€ (Kleinman et al, 1998:78). Third is the affordability approach, the aim of this is to identify the relationship between house prices and household income to determine housing requirements (WMRA, 2014), it is calculated by taking the percentage of households unable to purchase plus household formation minus social sector relets which equals the additional housing requirements. The model however â€œdoes not purport to measure needs relating to house condition or unsuitability within the social sectorâ€ (Bramley 2010:38). The final method is the gross flows approach. Used to create current housing need, this is calculated by taking â€œGross household formation by category, and adding the tenure propensity of each category to arrive at the demand for social housing from new householdsâ€ (Pinto, 1995:75). This was used by the Greater London Authority for the London housing capacity study (Livingstone, 2005), it provided an ambitious growth plan where a regional housing growth target was set for 457,959 houses to be provided from 1997-2016 (Manzi, 2010:107).The concept is effective as it uses actual behaviour such as age and cohort effects rather than affordability norm (Boelhouwer et al., 2005:103). Quantity, quality and affordability are at the heart of housing need and demand issues in the UK and must be addressed in order to meet current and future housing requirements. This essay has defined the difference between housing demand and housing need and provided insight into the factors in which they depend on. Changes in the population and households are guaranteed to change in the future and therefore must be taken into consideration. Housing demand is mainly affected by the price of housing and the factors surrounding it such as supply and income, addressing these factors has led to not only solving current needs and demands but also the importance of planning for the future. This has been shown through the explanation of several different models displaying ways of estimating future and present housing requirements such as the net-stock approach or affordability approach. In conclusion for current housing needs and demands to be met larger amounts of housing must be provided at a price that is affordable and of a good quality, by setting and reaching targets this will hopefully meet the needs and demands of the present and the future. Appendices Appendix A (Wilcox and Perry, 2013:8) Appendix B (DCLG, 2014:4) Bibliography BBC (2013) [ONLINE] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-24449898 (Assessed 7/3/2014). Best, R, Porteus, J. (2012) â€œHousing our Ageing Population: Plan for Implementationâ€, All part parliamentary group on housing and care for older people. Boelhouwer, P, Doling, J, Elsinga, M. (2005) â€œHome Ownership: Getting In, Getting From, Getting Out, Part 1â€, Delft University Press. Bramley, G, Pawson, H, White, M, Watkins, D. (2010) â€œEstimating housing needâ€, Department of communities and local government. David, P, A. (2002) â€œReport of colloquium on contribution of the co-operative sector to housing developmentâ€, UN-HABITAT. DCLG (Department of communities and Local Government). (2013) â€œEnglish Housing Survey households 2011-12â€, DCLG. DCLG (Department of communities and Local Government). (2014) â€œHouse Building: December Quarter 2013, Englandâ€, DCLG. DoE (Department of Environment). (1980) â€œHousing requirements: a guide to information and techniquesâ€, University of Bristol School for Advanced Urban Studies. Downs, A. (2004) â€œGrowth Management and Affordable Housing: Do They Conflict?â€, The Brookings Institution . Empty Homes (2014). [ONLINE] â€œ http://www.emptyhomes.com/what-you-can-do-2/get-involved/what-to-do-with-your-empty-home/ (Assessed â€“ 07/03/2014). GLA (Greater London Authority). (2010) [ONLINE] http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/housing-land/improving-quality (Assessed 6/3/2014.) HCTC (House of Commons Treasury Committee). (2013) â€œBudget 2013: Ninth Report of Session 2012-13â€, House of Commons. Holmans, A. (1995) â€œHousing demand and need in England 1991-2011â€, Joseph Rowntree foundation. Jones, C, Watkins, C. (2009) â€œHousing markets and planning policyâ€, Wiley-Blackwell. Kleinman, M, Matznetter, W, Stephens, M. (1998) â€œEuropean Integration and Housing Policyâ€, Routledge. Livingstone, K. (2005) â€œ2004 London Housing Capacity studyâ€, Greater London Authority. Madden, P, Goodman, J, Green, J, Jenkinson, C. (2010) â€œGrowing Pains: Population and Sustainability in the UKâ€, Forum for the Future. Manzi, T, Lucas, K, Jones, T, Allen, J. (2010) â€œSocial Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabricâ€, Earthscan. Monk, S, Whitehead, C. (2010) â€œMaking Housing more Affordable: The role of intermediate tenuresâ€, Wiley-Blackwell. Noguchi, Y, Poterba, J, M. (1994) â€œHousing Markets in the United States and Japanâ€, The University of Chicago Press. Nothaft F, E, Erbas, S, N. (2002) â€œThe Role of Affordable Mortgages in Improving Living Standards and stimulating growthâ€, IMF Working paper. OECD (organisation for economic co-operation and development). (2011) â€œDoing Better for Familiesâ€, OECD Publishing. Oxley, M. (2000) â€œThe Future of Social Housing: Learning from Europeâ€, IPPR. Oxley, M. (2009) â€œFinancing Affordable Social Housing in Europeâ€, UN-HABITAT. Pacione, M. (2009) â€œUrban Geography: A Global Perspectiveâ€, Routledge. Pinto, R. (1995) â€œDevelopments in Housing Management and Ownershipâ€, Manchester university press. Pozdena, R, J. (1988) â€œThe Modern Economics of Housing: A Guide to Theory and Policy for Finance and Real Estate professionalsâ€, Greenwood Press. Robinson, R. (1997) â€œHousing economics and public policyâ€, Macmillan. Shucksmith, M. (2002) â€œHouse building in Britains Countrysideâ€, Routledge. Shelter (2013) [ONLINE] http://england.shelter.org.uk/campaigns/why_we_campaign/Improving_social_housing/Why_we_need_more_social_housing (Assessed 6/3/2014). Stephens, M. (2011) â€œTackling housing market volatility in the UKâ€, Joseph Roundtree Foundation Struyk, R, J. (1988) â€œAssessing Housing Needs and Policy Alternatives in Developing Countriesâ€, The Urban Institute Press. Tallon, A. (2010) â€œUrban Regeneration in the UKâ€, Routledge. Telegraph (2013) [ONLINE] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/interest-rates/10529164/Millions-of-homeowners-may-need-second-job-if-interest-rates-rise-BoE-warns.html (Assessed 7/3/2014). Tighe, R, J, Mueller, E, J. (2013) â€œThe Affordable Housing Readerâ€, Routledge. Vale, J, L. (2013) â€œPurging the Poorest: Public Housing and the Design Politics of Twice-Cleared communitiesâ€, Routledge. Welsh Government (2008) â€œAffordable Housing in Wales: Report to Deputy Minister for Housing and Regenerationâ€(â€œEssex Reportâ€), Cardiff, WG. WMRA (West Midlands Regional Assembly)(2014) [ONLINE] http://www.wmra.gov.uk/documents/Chapter%204.pdf (Assessed 11/3/2014). Whitehead, C, Kleinman, M. (1992) â€œA Review of Housing Needs Assessmentâ€, The Housing Corporation. Wilcox, S, Perry, J. (2013) â€œUK Housing Review Briefing Paperâ€, Chartered Institute of Housingâ€, The University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. (2010) â€œKey issues for the new parliament 2010: Housing supply and demandâ€, The House of Commons. Xue, J. (2013) â€œEconomic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationshipâ€, Routledge.